Thursday, June 18, 2009
Breaking the Silence: Activities Aimed at Encouraging Students’ Oral Participation
By Ela Newman
Instructor in Developmental Writing and in ESL
University of Texas at Brownsville
A group discussion begins. The clock ticks and tocks but there is not a second of silence. In fact, all the participants are so active that the teacher is forced to set a limit on how much each student can contribute to the conversation. When asked to summarize the group’s deliberations, the students compete for the role of speaker. Even when the class is over, while packing their books (and checking their latest text messages), the students continue the discussion.
Am I dreaming? Probably. But some approximation of this scenario is possible, at least some of the time.
We know that an ordinary oral task can evolve into a dynamic conversation if students work in an environment where obstacles hampering participation–such as shyness, feelings of inadequacy, or worry about embarrassment–are overcome by peer support, a non-punitive learning environment, and even motivation.
But what about the actual activities we use? Do certain oral tasks naturally evoke an animated response?
In my experience, students are more often orally active when:
1. They know that the success of a group activity requires a contribution from every student.
Example activity: Groups are assigned to share, compare, and then present information about each member’s study habits.
2. They are asked to contribute knowledge or expertise acquired outside the ESL classroom.
Example activity: Groups are assigned to describe the steps involved in ordering a CD, DVD, book, article of clothing, etc. from an online store.
3. They are surprised or shocked by a piece of news, preferably fake news.
Example activity: Before class begins, two students are told a piece of “strange” news and are asked to report that they have heard about the news when the teacher mentions it during a class discussion. Even doubting students and shy students have been known to bring themselves into the conversation once the two ‘plants’ have spoken up.
The news might be that there is a new law against driving while listening to metal rock and roll (passed because of research into brainwave conflicts associated with doing the two activities at once) or that scientists have discovered a genetic defect in collies which is causing an increasing number of them to become rabid spontaneously. (Sorry Lassie!) The list of possible fake news items is endless, but the best seem to be those which are surprising yet also somehow believable.
4. They can use vocabulary items which are familiar and key to the task.
Example activity: Groups are assigned to consider a few job applications–which contain a variety of formal, characteristic vocabulary items–in order to decide whom to hire as a language tutor.
5. They have limited time to complete the task.
Example activity: Students play a high-speed version of the well-known game “Twenty Questions”–a version called “Twenty Seconds.” Knowing that everyone must think and speak quickly in the game, and that mistakes will inevitably be made by a number of the participants, students ordinarily feel less inhibited than usual when playing this question- answer game.
Once a supportive and cooperative learning environment is established, we can turn our minds to activities. It is my experience that the choices of oral tasks often determine whether or not students genuinely engage in discussions.
Do you use any special tasks to foster animated discussions in your ESL classroom?