Thursday, August 13, 2009
Students in the Land of Grammar: The Use of Discovery Techniques
By Ela Newman
Instructor in Developmental Writing and in ESL
University of Texas at Brownsville
“No, no, definitely no comma here,” insisted my student Tania, who immediately followed her confident statement with an enthusiastic, “We do need that information to know which tourists we’re talking about!” Her group mates nodded in wholehearted agreement. “Yes, Yes! It’s not extra information. It’s necessary information,” added Claudia, who, out of sheer excitement, almost sprang out of her chair.
Who would have thought that working on rules governing the punctuation of defining and non-defining relative clauses could generate such excitement in nineteen-year-olds? All right so we’re not talking El Dorado, but such rules can be quite valuable discoveries to most students.
For me, allowing students to become “grammar explorers” brings several benefits:
1. Because of their “mystery-solving” quality, discovery-based activities can capture and hold students’ attention as effectively as most interactive presentations can, and they demonstrate to students that working with grammar does not have to be dull;
2. Because of students’ personal involvement in exploratory tasks, discovery techniques help them remember rules more easily;
3. Because of their analytical character,these techniques actually show students ways to approach other, unfamiliar grammatical structures;
4. And, perhaps most importantly, because of the independent work requirements integral to discovery tasks, these activities prove to students that they can recognize a rule by themselves, and that they can be active “explorers” of the language even outside the classroom.
I recently came across a very informative article by Pavel V. Sosoyev entitled “Integrative L2 Grammar Teaching: Exploration, Explanation and Expression“ in which he not only discusses the benefits of discovery techniques, but also shares a sample lesson as well as a questionnaire which he created to explore his students’ views on inductive learning.
And here are four of my own discovery-based lessons:
- Lesson on the Causative “Have”
- Lesson on Punctuating Defining and Non-Defining Adjective Clauses
- Lesson on Reduced Clauses of Reason
- Lesson on Expressing Cause and Effect
It seems to me that discovery techniques have various merits, but they are rather time-consuming and I ordinarily manage to use them only intermittently in a course.
Which grammar structures or concepts do you think might be taught naturally by way of discovery techniques? Do you use exploratory techniques in your classroom? If so, have you found them to be effective usually?